Resource constraints limit mobile performance. By neglecting available TCP improvements inherently included in QUIC, comparisons do not shed light on the performance of current web stacks. A very practical decision: using UDP enables very fast deployability at user space, whereas modifying TCP would take ages to be adopted (more on network protocols here). At its core, QUIC is a … For the MSS network, QUIC with CUBIC still achieved a large speed increase compared to TCP+. There are also cases where TCP+ is now slightly faster. The bytes transmitted was of the same size as the files used in the QUIC experiment. Figure Z: QUIC vs TCP performance. Your email address will not be published. Editor’s note: This research has been awarded a 2018 Applied Networking Research Prize. Regarding human perception, QUIC’s benefits are minimal, especially for speedy networks, and the individual rendering order of website elements is more relevant than protocol choice. As part of ongoing work, we are investigating the origin of this unfairness, how to address it, and how to further optimize the QUIC protocol. To do the same tests but with TCP, Iperf was used for generating TCP segments between a client and a server [12]. Nonetheless, QUIC paves the way for a fully encrypted transport protocol, stays evolvable by circumventing ossification, and is the most appropriate option for future protocol development. Your email address will not be published. Prior to joining ThousandEyes, Arash was at Northeastern University, where he obtained his PhD focusing on performance and policy impacts of transport protocols and in-network devices. QUIC allows using CUBIC BBR [1], so a comparison based on the exact parameters used is actually comparing the exact parameters used. Figure 3: Increasing the NACK threshold makes QUIC more resilient to out of order packets. In this post, we highlighted several interesting findings from our study of the QUIC protocol. setTimeout( We found that in mobile, QUIC spends most of its time (58%) in the ‘Application Limited’ state, meaning that the sender paused the transfer while waiting for the receiver to process packets. This email discussion reveals the HTTP-over-QUIC to be officially renamed to HTTP/3. In Figures 1, 2, and 3, we plot the performance difference between QUIC and TCP (in percentage), with each cell representing a different link capacity and object size. +1 to this. This post is based on his work while at Northeastern University. ); Video 1 shows the loading processes of TCP+ and QUIC side-by-side. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Due to QUIC’s implementation in userspace, resource contention might negatively impact performance independent of the protocol’s optimizations for transport efficiency. With each draft the group i… but what about mobile devices? Since we expected congestion control to play a major role in the overall performance as well, we tested with BBR (a recent congestion control contributed by Google) instead of CUBIC. Figure 2: QUIC does not cope well with out-of-order delivery. And according to Can I use, it’s also supported by all modern web browsers. QUIC is a new UDP-based transport protocol for the Internet, and specifically, the web. Traffic shaping was also made using tc to Negative performance gains indicate that the protocol written at the bottom is faster. ); The views expressed by the authors of this blog are their own timeout Existing performance comparisons of QUIC and TCP compared an optimized QUIC to an unoptimized TCP stack. Please click the refresh button next to the equation below to reload the CAPTCHA (Note: your comment will not be deleted). And contrarily, does the TCP stack leave that much performance on the wire? In fact, our experiments showed that QUIC always consumes more than half of the bottleneck bandwidth, even as the number of competing TCP flows increases. four  ×   =  8 .hide-if-no-js { display: none !important; }. However, we observed that QUIC performs significantly worse than TCP when the network reorders packets (Figure 2). Then, we present a simulation setting for energy … more than 85% of requests from Chrome browsers to Google servers, comprehensive evaluation of QUIC’s performance. Please note a Code of Conduct applies to this blog. notice.style.display = "block"; Google's 'QUIC' TCP alternative slow to excite anyone outside Google . Figure 5: QUIC performance improvements diminish or disappear on mobile devices (compared to Figure 1). Table 1 — Network characteristics for emulating different network settings. ok, these results showed QUIC does mostly better than TCP on a computer. and has been deployed by companies such as Google and Akamai, with more than 20 implementations in progress, including for Microsoft, Mozilla, Verizon, and Facebook. Check your inbox or spam folder to confirm your subscription. Work on QUIC began in the early 2010s and was pioneered by Google, which wanted to create a faster and more performance-centric data transfer protocol to replace TCP. Required fields are marked *. In a nutshell, QUIC replaces the combination of TCP and TLS, taking a cross-layer approach to transport and security. A very practical decision: using UDP enables very fast deployability at user space, whereas modifying TCP would take ages to be adopted (more on network protocols here). So we selected two websites that rely on resources from one single server only. To test whether this is a concern in practice, we evaluated an increasingly common resource-constrained deployment environment: smartphones. OTOH, QUIC allows deploying new features to users (through cronet) in an efficient way. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC), SCTP, TCP and TCP-Reno within Cloud and Cloudlet services. By neglecting available TCP improvements inherently included in QUIC, comparisons do not shed light on the performance of current web stacks. setTimeout( We observed that, independent of TCP or QUIC, results only differed in the highly loss-affected MSS network where BBR seems to be better suited since it can oversee static loss. QUIC is built on top of UDP so it requires 1 packet to establish the connection, including TLS. Existing performance comparisons of QUIC and TCP compared an optimized QUIC to an unoptimized TCP stack. Each cell uses the same latency and loss settings (described in the caption); cells with red colours indicate that QUIC is faster than TCP and blue indicates that TCP outperforms QUIC. In a nutshell, QUIC replaces the combination of TCP and TLS, taking a cross-layer approach to transport and security. Taking a closer look at the congestion window changes (Figure 6), we found that while both protocols use Cubic, QUIC increases its window more aggressively (both in terms of slope, and in terms of more frequent window size increases). Underneath QUIC, UDP is used as “transport”. WIFI. The performance effects of QUIC implementing congestion control in userland are more interesting. And, especially in bad networks, QUIC’s features seem to provide a significant advantage over TCP. We first present the transport protocols and a comparison between Cloud and Cloudlet. We used the same measurement approach described above with two popular Android phones: Nexus 6 and MotoG. It provides a foundation for new applications, and existing ones–like HTTP–can be adapted to use it too. Please answer the math question *(function( timeout ) { Nevertheless, QUIC still outperforms even our tuned variant of TCP. I also recommend the extraordin… Please click the refresh button next to the equation below to reload the CAPTCHA (Note: your comment will not be deleted). Please note a Code of Conduct applies to this blog. But it is not clear whether this gap originates solely from the RTT difference between both protocols in our measurements. How does QUIC compare to that? With these changes in place, quicly now achieves 464 Mbps (1% faster than TLS 1.3 over TCP) when the first QUIC packets sent by the client are 1460 bytes, and 425Mbps (only 8% slower than TLS 1.3 over TCP) when the first QUIC packets sent by the client are 1350 bytes – … In the desktop scenario, this occurs only 7% of the time. Samuel Jero. Under current conditions, end users still benefit from QUIC. This implies user-space driven context-switching costs. [2] [9] It does this by establishing a number of multiplexed connections between two endpoints using User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and is designed to obsolesce TCP at the network layer for many applications, thus earning the protocol the occasional nickname "TCP/2" [13] . https://blog.apnic.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Video.mp4. When doing so, (see Table 2) the difference between QUIC and TCP+ usually falls below the duration of one RTT. In the past, QUIC’s web performance might have been exaggerated. HTTP-over-QUIC, which has been renamed to HTTP/3, will be come the next HTTP protocol version to succeed HTTP/2. On the surface, QUIC is very similar to TCP+TLS+HTTP/2 implemented on UDP. }, HTTP/3 is, at the time of this writing, an IETF Internet-Draft or ID, which means tha… Google saw that there was room for improvement and in 2014 started deployment of QUIC on … QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connection) is a transport protocol initially proposed by Google, which implements TCP-like properties at the application layer atop a UDP transport. An essential property of transport-layer protocols is that they do not consume more than their fair share of bottleneck bandwidth resources. Why UDP? In 2016, we published an article about HTTP/2, a standard that, according to W3Techs, currently has around a 34% world adoption rate. Values < 0 denote that QUIC was faster. So, we at RWTH Aachen University in Germany set out to compare the web-performance of TCP+TLS1.3+HTTP/2 against Google QUIC on an eye-to-eye level. var notice = document.getElementById("cptch_time_limit_notice_12"); Since it is well known that large content providers operate highly optimized TCP network stacks, we think that past measurements neglect this fact and compare QUIC configured for the web against commodity and web-optimized TCP stacks. While it outperforms TCP in a wide range of scenarios, we found that it underperforms in the presence of packet reordering and on resource-constrained mobile devices. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. For a deeper understanding of QUIC, I recommend taking a look at Chromium Projects(QUIC at 10,000 feetis an excellent starting point). While Google-reported performance for QUIC is promising — 3% page load time (PLT) improvement on Google search and 18% reduction in buffer time on YouTube — they are aggregated statistics and not reproducible by others (such as ourselves). TCP does not. We think that this best replicated current and future deployments since TCP FastOpen is still hindered by middleboxes in some networks and TLS early-data was not implemented at the time of measurement. Since its introduction, the protocol has undergone rapid development (currently at version 43!) We found that, similar to the desktop environment, in mobile environments, QUIC outperforms TCP in most cases. Clearly, tuning is beneficial (see TCP vs. TCP+). Figure 6: QUIC persistently consumes more than its fair share of bottleneck bandwidth, even in the presence of multiple TCP flows. When comparing ordinary TCP against QUIC, the performance increase was large, but tuning reduced this gap. The main performance improvement of QUIC over TCP come from two key differentiators: Connection handshake: TCP required a 3-way handshake to establish a connection, and, on top of that, you also need to negotiate the TLS connection. Please click the refresh button next to the equation below to reload the CAPTCHA (Note: your comment will not be deleted). Thereby, both the protocol’s connection establishments are levelled. We found that compared to TCP, QUIC is able to improve the PLTs under various network conditions (Figure 1). Underneath QUIC, UDP is used as “transport”. Figure 1: QUIC outperforms … Performance Analysis of QUIC Protocol under Network Congestion by AmitSrivastava AThesis ... (Transport Control Protocol), a network protocol that allows applications to communicate ... to TCP and congestion control where QUIC uses CUBIC similar TCP but also 12. supportsothermechanisms. Thus, adopting QUIC need not be a top priority to bring websites up to speed and applying well-established methods for increasing web performance might be more profitable. The U is sometimes expanded as “Unreliable” rather than User Datagram Protocol because it doesn’t give guarantees about message delivery or packet order. This means a lot of the network gains from QUIC are potentially (largely) undone by the slower … TLS is for encryption. and do not necessarily reflect the views of APNIC. Time limit is exhausted. While initial performance results from Google show significant gains compared to TCP for the slowest 1% of connections and for video streaming, 9 there have been very few repeatable studies measuring and explaining the performance of QUIC compared with standard HTTP/2+TCP. QUIC is an alternative to TCP+TLS that provides reliable data delivery. we redid this using a mobile phone, and we found this Other QUIC evaluations by independent researchers use limited tests in limited environments/networks, and do not provide root cause analysis to help us understand the performance results. The members of the QUIC Working Group collaborate on analyzing, implementing and interoperating the specification in order to find things that don't work quite right. We showed that a TCP web stack with simple adjustments can keep pace with QUIC. For example, QUIC loads the final font late whereas TCP+ takes time to finish loading the banner entirely. Secondly, we assess the performance of QUIC compared to SPDY and TCP in terms of transport time decrease. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. “With HTTP/3 we’re going to build a new reliable protocol on top of what is the same old unreliable internet,” J… But with today’s networks, that’s actually an opportunity to improve performance for the multiplexed connections that HTTP/2 introduced. }, Required fields are marked *. We further investigated why QUIC is unfair to TCP by investigating the QUIC source code and using TCP probe to extract congestion window information. HTTP Performance: QUIC vs TCP. Read: How much of the Internet is using QUIC? This work is based on our paper and was presented at the ANRW’19 (Applied Network Research Workshop). In some ways QUIC is anti-thetical to high-performance programming and multi-core CPUs. Darker colours indicate larger performance differences, and white cells indicate no statistically significant difference between QUIC and TCP. 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