shipping: + $20.00 shipping . Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies.. Russian Civil War: Seeds Of Conflict. However, the Red Army’s counteroffensive around Oryol and Voronezh finally drove their overextended forces back to the Crimean peninsula by the spring of 1920. They were joined by other groups, including former tsarist officers and loyalist militias. The communist program also had an inherently broader appeal to the impoverished masses. The Poles chose to attack in Ukraine in the spring of 1920 as Soviet Russia lay nearly prostrate following two years of civil war. THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of the most fateful struggles of the 20th century, yielding perhaps only to the two world wars in its significance. The family of Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar, who had been deposed when the communists came … The Bolshevik propaganda campaign was also more successful. Learn how your comment data is processed. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. 3. Here, the Whites made their most serious attempt to take Moscow and overthrow the Soviet government. This gave them better access to infrastructure, communications and supply lines. Ultimately, the political divisions and military problems of the White movement, along with the Bolsheviks maintaining control of European Russia and its industrial centres, allowed the Bolsheviks to secure victory in 1921. The war comprised three main fronts: the Eastern, stretching from the middle Volga to Lake Baikal in Siberia; the Southern, which encompassed most Ukraine and southeastern Russia, and; the Polish, which covered the territory from the newly-independent Baltic States to the Romanian border. Main article: October Revolution (Central Victory)In the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the for… In contrast, the Red Army, though not without its own problems, contained five million soldiers at its peak and was tightly disciplined. As a result, the Whites failed to win support from the people or present themselves as an alternative to the Soviet regime. With the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, the Bolsheviks became not just traitors to the war but a political threat to democratic-capitalist nations. Ufa fell in June, and Kolchak’s armies retreated through Siberia, harassed by partisans. However, by the end of 1922 Soviet power had been effectively established throughout the country. In the first half of 1919 the main fighting was in the east. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Origins of the War: Reds and Whites Form Some misguided historians believe the US intervention in the Russian Civil War was an imperialistic adventure. By Jennifer L. Weber WHEN ABRAHAM LINCOLN TOOK OFFICE IN MARCH 1861, the executive branch was small and relatively limited in its power. The Whites advanced rapidly at first and even captured Kazan’, along the Volga River. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of the most fateful struggles of the 20 th century, yielding perhaps only to the two world wars in its significance. Central Powers intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions starting in 1918. Two of these first White governments were formed by Socialist-Revolutionaries: the Provisional Siberian Government, based in Vladivostok, and the Committee of Constituent Assembly Members, formed in Samara. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражда́нская война́ в Росси́и, tr. Although most of the war was over by 1920, it took until 1922 for the Bolsheviks, who held the industrial heartland of Russia from the start, to crush all opposition. As a consequence, foreign troops began withdrawing from Russia in 1919. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin’s Bolsheviks. Russia’s Federal News Agency (FAN), underwritten by “Putin’s chef” Yevgeny Prigozhin, exclaimed: “Experts predict civil war in the United States following the presidential election.” The civil war was fought mostly by Russians loyal to (or forced to fight for) Lenin's communist Bolsheviks against a motley collection of militias known as … Neither side possessed an army when the fighting began, the old imperial army having collapsed during the revolutionary upheavals of 1917. All Rights Reserved. →. The book is published by Casemate. World War I was very hard on the Russian Empire. Richard W. Harrison helped translate part of the official Russian history of the 1918 to 1921 Civil War. At the same time, Russia’s former allies – Britain, France, the United States and Canada, among others – landed forces at Murmansk and Archangel, thus opening a front in this area. The Civil War saw the formation of White armies and governments in different locations around Russia, particularly in the north, southern Russia and Siberia. Several foreign powers who opposed the Bolshevik regime also contributed troops, weapons, supplies and intelligence to the Whites. Some of these groups established counter-revolutionary regimes, usually based in a particular city or region. Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. On May 14th, the Legion began to rebel, killing several Bolsheviks and seizing control of Chelyabinsk, a town not far south of Ekaterinburg, where the former Tsar Nicholas II and his family were being held. Fighting intensified in the summer of 1918, when the action spread to the eastern periphery of the Bolsheviks’ territory. Yet another White government was based in Arkhangelsk, a White Sea port city, 700 miles north-west of St Petersburg. Publisher: Alpha History The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. A loose confederation of a… These foreign interventions, launched by Allied nations at the end of World War I, generated significant controversy. This essentially concluded the Russian civil war, although there remained isolated centers of resistance in Central Asia and the Far East. The communists, known collectively as the Bolsheviks, or Reds, sought to construct a new, collectivist society on the ruins of the old Russian Empire. There had been opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but this intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). Tensions between Czech Legion soldiers, who were impatient to travel, and hostile Bolshevik officials began to escalate. Various fronts of the Russian Civil War, 1919. The Whites also lost important generals at critical times, such as Kornilov (killed in battle in March 1918) and Kolchak (executed in January 1920). Set during the Civil War between the Reds and the Whites that followed the 1917 revolution in Russia Director: Nikita Mikhalkov | Stars: Yuriy Bogatyryov, Anatoliy Solonitsyn, Sergey Shakurov, Aleksandr Porokhovshchikov Votes: 2,644 6. The struggle pitted two irreconcilable parties against each other. Foreign powers also intervened in Russia in an attempt to force the collapse of Bolshevism. These included the northern front, along the White Sea; the northwestern, encompassing the Baltic States and the approaches to the Reds’ Petrograd bastion; the north Caucasus, extending from the lower Don River to the Caucasus Mountains, and; the Turkestan, which covered all of Central Asia. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window), a broad spectrum of counterrevolutionary political currents, Russia’s withdrawal from the First World War, a national war that pitted a reborn Polish state against its former Russian overlords, The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921. Before taking an in-depth look at the continuity between the two conflicts, we need to first establish the boundaries of this multifa… The Southern Front exploded in the spring of 1919 as well, with the irruption of the White armies out of the North Caucaus. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. There were other groups not aligned with the Bolsheviks or Whites who fought for their own objections, such as regional interests, political autonomy or independence. Opposition began to grow and intensify into a fully-fledged counter-revolutionary movement. The two largest combatant groups fought over the control of Russia’s political future: the Red Army, known as the Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin’s leadership, and the White Army which had foreign influence. The outcome of the conflict had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people within the country and abroad for the next 70 years. They were geographically scattered and separated by vast distances. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. $65.11. Rather it was a national war that pitted a reborn Polish state against its former Russian overlords, who appeared this time in the guise of social revolution. Anti-Bolshevik Russian soldiers in 1919. After losing the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) to the alliance of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire, Russia faced another challenge a few years later. By the end of June 1918, counter-revolutionaries controlled most of the railway and with it, all of Siberia. Foreign military intervention was lukewarm at best. These fronts alternated in significance throughout the war, with the Reds sometimes attacking and sometimes defending. The Civil War was born of anti-Bolshevik activity following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the closure of the Constituent Assembly and the revolt of the Czech Legion. Generals in exile crimes and human suffering on catastrophic levels scope and at one point the front some... 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